Using SSH with a Key-Pair

Secure shell (i.e., ssh) normally prompts you for an ID and password when you login, however, it's possible to “sidestep” this process using a public/private key pair for authentication. This is particularly convenient when using some other protocol (e.g., SVN, Git) on top of SSH. To take advantage of this feature you must first create such a pair and then provide the server with your public key.

Checking for an Existing Key-Pair

You may already have a key-pair (that was created for some other purpose). If so, you should use it.

To check, open a command shell and navigate to your home directory (e.g., \users\username in MS-Windows, ~ in Unix/Linux and OS X) and see if you have a directory/folder named .ssh (note the period). If you do, it will contain the files id_rsa (your private key) and (your public key).

If you have these files then you do not need to create a key-pair.

Creating a Key-Pair

You can create a key-pair using the ssh-keygen utility from the command shell. (In versions of MS-Windows prior to 10 you will need to use the PuTTY Key Generator or the MSYS/MINGW shell, both of which are available for free.)

To do so, enter the command:

ssh-keygen -C "Generated YYMMDD"

where YYMMDD is the date. (Note: The -C flag simply inserts a comment that is useful when trying to identify key pairs.) By default, ssh-keygen will generate a key with 2048 bits. This can be changed using the -b flag.

Then press Enter in response to the prompts (unless you want to change the directory/folder where the keys will be stored and/or want to further protect your private key with a passphrase).

This will create two files, one named id_rsa (your private key) and one named (your public key). As the name implies, you should not give your private key to anyone, but you can give your public key to anyone without risk.

Copying your Public Key to a Linux Server

On Linux servers, a user's public keys are stored in the file ~/.ssh/authorized_keys. If you have ssh-copy-id on your computer, you can use it to upload your public key to a Linux server (e.g., and append it to this file. If not, you will need to upload the file manually (e.g., using SCP) and then append it to this file as follows:

cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Logging-In using the Key-Pair

At this point, you should be able to use SSH (either directly or indirectly) to login to the Linux server without providing an ID and/or password.